The Early Inhabitants, the Shasu Nomads

According to scholars, interesting changes took place in burial customs during the late Early Bronze Age period in this region. At Bab al Dahra, a well-preserved site in Wadi Araba, archaeologists have discovered over 20,000 shaft tombs with multiple chambers that are thought to have contained the remains of 200,000 corpses. There were also charnel houses of mud-brick containing human bones, pots, jewellery and weapons. The many sites scattered throughout are dated to the late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages. It is possible that these small settlements are evidence of new peoples from the north bringing with them different living and burial traditions. 

Spectacular advances in urban civilization were taking place during this period in Egypt and Mesopotamia, where writing developed before 3000 BC.

From 2300-1950 BC, many of the large, fortified hilltop towns constructed during the Early Bronze Age were abandoned in favour of either small, unfortified villages or a pastoral lifestyle. Archaeologists do not know for sure what prompted this shift.

During the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1950-1550 BC), people began to move around the Middle East to a far greater extent than before. The creation of bronze out of copper and tin resulted in harder and more durable axes, knives and other tools and weapons. 

According to Jordanian scholars the region during this period was populated by a nomadic, Bedouin-type of people known as the Shasu. This fact was documented in hieroglyphic inscriptions of the 13th century BC on temple walls in Egypt.

According to Arab Historians and Egyptologists, the Coptic language, whose traditions and language were directly derived from the ancient Egyptians, still uses the word Shos which means shepherd. The word came from the original Egyptian word Shasu which means Bedouin.  According to the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho, Sos means shepherd or shepherds.

The Shasu Noble Shepherds Alliance “the Hyksos”
In history, we learn that “the Shasu”  were part of a big tribal alliance known in history by the Greek word Hyksos. Hyksos is derived from the Egyptian word 'hyk' meaning prince, and 'sos' or 'shasu' denoting pastoral shepherds.

The Hyksos were basically Semitic and Indo-European people, the majority of the tribes were originally Hittite and Hurrian.  (The Hittites, descendants of the tribe of Japhet ben Noah. The Hurrians, descendants of the tribe of Shem ben Noah.)

In the biblical references we find confirmation that the leadership of the Hyksos were inhabiting this region “These were the sons of Seir the Horite, who were living in the region”. Genesis 36-20. 

The Hyksos tribes came from Asia Minor to the north west region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly to graze their herds on the plants sprouting in the rich Red soil down the Camel's ancestoral migration route. (read: Animal Track lines.)Another reason for heading south was for the hunting and domestication of the Ibex, the mountain goat, that inhabits the highlands of north west Arabia.
Geological and Archaeological findings, together with sea surveys of the Atlantic ocean and elsewhere, appear to support geological changes of land mass, accompanied by dramatic rises in sea level, in the past. This scientific data together with the universal flood myth, certainly suggest that the story of an advanced civilization destroyed  by global deluge may not be without some foundation of truth. 

The Old Testament has reference to Abraham's Grandfather under the name (Arfkshd) or (Arbaksad), whose origin belongs to Ararat in Armenia as one of Noah descendants.  The Arameans according to the Bible were Hurrians. The Bible also keeps on reminding us in Abraham stories of his Aramaic descent who was always wandering. 

The Hyksos were tribes of nomadic shepherd warriors who spread across north western Arabia. (Evidence clearly indicates that they were Semitic “Indo-European” people with a nomadic lifestyle). They took advantage of the then weakened peoples and governments of the region, and extended their influence into Egypt, where they stayed until their expulsion, circa 1575 BC. 

The Hyksos introduced the new horse-drawn chariots to Egypt in the second half of their rule. This invention, never seen before in Egypt, was instrumental in the continued power of the Hyksos in the region. It was during this period, that two important external influences were exerted on Egypt making possible new methods of warfare and overwhelming military superiority: the two-wheeled horse-drawn chariot, and the compound bow. 

In The History of Antiquity, Manetho states that: “Egypt was indebted to the Hyksos for much of the wisdom and artistry she bequeathed to later civilizations. For five centuries they remained in the land.”

It is mentioned in the Carnarvon Tablet that horses were brought into Egypt by the Hetero, and Hetero is known to scholars to be of Hurrian origin “a major tribe in the Hyksos alliance along with the Hittite.” According to the Encyclopaedia, it is the Hurrians who brought the wheel that is drawn by the horse to Egypt.
Iron may initially have come to a place of prominence through use of iron-bearing minerals as fluxes to remove slag during copper smelting operations.

An iron knife, supposedly dated to Middle Bronze Age (1950-1550 BC), was discovered in Pella, North of the Wadi Araba and the Dead Sea. The dating of the weapon is several centuries prior to the Iron Age proper (1200-539 BC). This finding reveals the possible importance of Wadi Araba mines in the advancement of human history. 

Throughout the Middle East, the earliest iron objects were regarded as valuable items, each of them unique, prior to mass production. Iron became fully established throughout the Mediterranean by the 10th century B.C. It was used as the metal of preference in the production of weapons, tools and general structures. Bronze was continued be used for cast sheet products, for which iron was unsuitable. 

Unlike bronze, iron weapons could not be mass produced. Iron not only requires temperatures above  1500 Celsius to reach its melting point, but also smelting with charcoal to release the metal. Iron casting was impossible prior to the introduction of a blast furnace, which sustained sufficiently high temperatures to melt the metal. Upon reaching its melting point, the blazing hot iron was laboriously forged by hand. Although these technologies were established in China in the late 1st millennium BC, they were not introduced to Europe or the Middle East until the later Middle Ages.

Strong iron tools that may have been produced in Wadi Fennan were used by the tribes due to the natural availability of high-grade iron-bearing minerals between the copper ore. It is also possible, that the Acacia and Qathah tree’s vigorous wood and the Dead Sea bitumen played their significant roles in obtaining high temperatures required for iron smelting. Availability of natural resources and new technologies brought forth an undreamt of superiority of iron weaponry.
The Descendants of Noah Tribe 
from the Akashic Records


*Written by Rami Sajdi, Copyright © Rami Sajdi 2007 All Rights Reserved